“Iran” is the official name of the Islamic Republic of Iran, it is a country in the Southwest of Asia in the middle-east which is 1,648,195 square kilometers and has about 77,189,669 population based on the census in 2013. Based on the report by The World Economic Forum, Iran is the eighteenth most populous country in the world. Tehran is the capital city of Iran, the biggest and the political and administrative center of the country.
The Political Regime of the Islamic Republic of Iran is currently governing the country after the victory of the Islamic Revolution of Iran in 1978; this government was also held on 1st April 1979 after a referendum that won 98% of the people’s votes of the participants.
After the fall of Pahlavi dynasty on 11 February 1979 by the Islamic revolution led by Rouhollah Khomeini, the Islam Republic was begun in Iran. A referendum was held in on 1st April in Iran and there were 98.2% of positive votes for this government. According to the Iran’s constitution, the Islamic Republic of Iran is held based on Republicanism and Islamism.
The political structure of Iran includes natural people and legal people; the leader is on the top of the power system. After the supreme leader, the political structure of the Islamic republic of Iran is based on the Executive (government), judicial system and the Legislature. In addition to these organizations, the Assembly of Experts, Guardian Council and Expediency Discernment Council have significant roles.
Islam is the official religion and Persian is the official language in the country. Iran has an old reputation as a country and a nation and is one of the most historical countries in the world.
Iran has a structural location since it is placed in Eurasia. It has members from the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, Organization of Islamic Conference, OPEC, ECO (Economic Cooperation Organization) and several other international organizations. Iran is a regional power in the southwest of Asia and has a significant place in the global economics since it has Oil Industry, Petroleum Industry, Natural Gas and Automotive Industry.
“Iran” means “Aryan Territory”. Long before Islam, the country’s aboriginal name was Iran, Erran or Iranshahr. Iran was universally called “Persia” until 1935.
Aryan race was replaced in Iran almost about the mid-second millennium before Christ. It was intermingled with various Arab and Turk people; the Aryan race are the descendants of the Iranian race. More than 99 percent of the Iranian residents are Muslim among which approximately 80 percent are Twelve Imams Shia (the official religion of the country) and the rest are Sunni (mainly Kurds, Baloch people and Turkmens (as well as the Isma'ilism. The other one hundredth are the Zoroastrian minority. The official language of Iran is Persian which is not only taught in Iran, but also expanded from the Zagros Mountains to Pamir Mountains and Syr Darya.
The historical civilization of Iran goes back to Elam, Shahr-e Sukhteh, Jiroft and so on. The political history of the Iranians began since the Persian Empire, the Medes started to govern the country. The Medes are the primary empire in Iran; therefore, they are the starting points of the Persian empire history.
Today, Iran consists of various nations such as Persian, Azari, Kurd, Lor, Bakhtiari, Baloch, Mazandarani, Gilak, Talysh, Turkmen, Khalaj, Asyrian, Chaldean, Mandaean, Tat, Gorji, Sistani, Armani and Jew.
The combination of the Iranian races are 61% Persian, 16% Azari, 10% Kurd, 6% Lor, 2% Baloch, 2% Arab, 2% Turkmen and 1% other races.
There are almost 75 languages and dialects in Iran that all are common. The biggest language groups in Iran are Persian, Azerbaijani Turkish, Kurdish, Turkmen, Gilaki, Mazandarani, Khalaji, Talysh, Lori, Bakhtiari, Arabic, Balochi, Laki, Deylami, Tati, Armani, Asyrian, Mandaean, Gorji, Hebrew, Kaldani and so on.
The official and administrative language in Iran is Persian. Persian is one of the Indo-European languages. According to the fifteenth article of the Iran constitution, the text books should be written in this language, but applying the local and racial languages in the press and group media then teaching their literature in addition to Farsi at the schools is free.
The Constitution in Iran
When Imam Khomeini lived in Paris, before the Islamic revolution, the Iranians thought of writing the constitution and its first draft was written there; after that it was investigated and inspected several times. Since the first time Imam Khomeini came to Iran and had a lecture in Behesht-e Zahra, he promised the people to establish the Constituent assembly; therefore, the Council of the Islamic Revolution recommended Engineer Mehdi Bazargan as the commissioner of making the government and Imam Khomeini on 4 February 1979 appointed Bazargan to this position to manage the following:
Managing the country’s affairs, holding a referendum on the people’s comments about changing the regime to the Government of Islamic Republic, holding the Constituent assembly to approve the new constitution, and choosing the representatives for the people according to the new constitution.
After the interim government was begun, the Supreme Council of the Cultural Revolution was established in 7 April 1979 and its charter was approved. This charter defined a responsibility for the council that was to produce the constitution based on the Islamic regulations and the degree of freedom.
The Provinces of Iran
According to administrative divisions of Iran (approved in 1907), Iran was divided into 4 states such as “Azerbaijan”, “Khorasan”, “Fars”, “Kerman and Balochestan” as well as 10 provinces (other than the states). These divisions stayed like this until 1937 with small changes.
In 1937, according to the new administrative division, Iran was divided into 10 provinces and 49 towns. The number of the provinces in Iran was increased over time. Long time after the Islamic revolution, Iran maintained 24 provinces. In 1993, Ardabil province got separated from Eastern Azerbaijan. Ghom Province also got separated from Tehran in 1995 and Qazvin also got separated from Zanjan in 1994 then joined Tehran; later in 1997 changed to Qazvin province. Sometime after, Golestan was disjointed of Mazandaran and in 2004, Khorasan province got divided into three provinces such as: Southern Khorasan, Northern Khorasan and Razavi Khorasan and then in 24 April 2010, Tehran was divided into two provinces of Tehran and Alborz; thus, Iran consists of 31 provinces now.
The population of the cities of Iran
The people who live in the cities of Iran has increased a lot during the recent years. In the first official census in Iran which was taken in 1956, almost 32 percent (6/002/621 persons) out of the whole Iranian population (18,954,704 persons) lived in the cities. In this census, Tehran with 1/560/934 people was the most densely–populated city of Iran and after that Tabriz, Mashhad, Isfahan, Abadan, Shiraz, Kermanshah, Ahvaz and Rasht had the largest population respectively.
While another official census was taken in 2006, and showed that the number of the people who lived in the cities in Iran were 48/259/964 which included 68 percent of the whole population (70.495/782 persons). The most important reason for this increase was the rural people who immigrated to the cities; of course changing the villages to the cities was another important element. In the last census in 2011, the country population was over 75/149/669.