“Iranian Culture” is one of the richest and most diverse cultural heritage collections. Capet weaving, Persian Miniature, Pottery, Architecture, Music, Calligraphy, Khatam-kari, Vitreous Enamel, and Wood Mosaic are just some examples of Iranian art and handicrafts. Artisanal handicrafts are generally the ones to be used in the cities and villages. There is no need for novel technologies and they mostly rely on indigenous and traditional expertise. Artisanal handicrafts are both artistic consumer goods which is produced by insight, thought and culture that is called the art of industry on the whole.
1.Carpet Weaving: Iran is the place where carpet weaving was born. The discovery of Pazyryk – the oldest carpet – in the Siberia Mountains and its similarity with Persepolis made the researchers come up with the fact that this is an ancient art in Iran.
2.Persian Miniature: The most well-known and worthwhile samples of Iran’s picture art could be seen in the manuscripts which are called Persian miniature. In the Persian miniature, the designs are not similar to the real world. The close landscapes are in the lower section and the remote landscapes are in the upper section that none are full-faced.
3.Pottery: It is the craft of making ceramic material into pots or pottery wares using mud. Clay is the most desirable soil used in this industry. Today, potteries are being made in most of the cities of Iran such as Gonabad, Lalejin in Hamedan, Meibod in Yazd, Shah Reza in Isfahan, Zanvar in Aerbaijan, Kalporgan in Sistan Balouchestan, Jouibar in Mazandaran and Siahkal in Gilan.
4.Architecture: Iran’s architecture goes back to the seventh millennium before Christ. This art is developed for different reasons especially religious reasons. Iranian culture is especially valuable in comparison with the architecture of the other countries in the world; features such as suitable drawing, precise mathematic calculations, respecting technological and scientific issues in the building, high terraces, elevated pillars and finally various designs that each introduce the glory of the Iranian architecture.
5.Music: Iranian music has been disseminated among the Iranian people since a thousand years before Christ and the most agreeable, easiest and understandable ones are available today. A big part of the Central Asia, Afghanistan, Pakistan, the Republic of Azerbaijan, Armenia, Turkey and Greece are influenced by this music. Barbod and Nakisa are the musicians in Ancient Iran.
6.Calligraphy: Calligraphy is almost everywhere, but it is on the top of the visual arts in the East, Islamic lands and Iran. Islamic calligraphy and Iranian calligraphy is a wonderful balance of its elements and segments. The balance between the utility and the mobility; the balance between the frame and the context that can make a suitable shape for various meanings.
7.Khatamkari: Khatam is a systematic polygonal with various numbers of frontages that is made of various ingredients in different colors. Five, six, seven, eight, or ten-gonals. Different types of wood, bones, some of the metals as well as shell are the main materials used in Khatamkari. We do not know where exactly this art stems from and there are many myths about its history.
8.Vitreous enamel: The art of vitreous enamel goes back to approximately five thousand years ago. This art is mostly worked out on the copper but it can also be done on gold and silver. Golden-enamels have much better quality than the copper and the silver ones. Enamels are made of the combination of the metal oxides as well as various types of salt in high temperature and the colors are made during the time on a par with the temperature. The center of vitreous enamel are Isfahan and Shiraz.
9.Wood Mosaic Tile: This is an art to lumber the colorful woods and integrate them with other materials such as fiber, khatam, metal and shell on the wooden background with polyester color. Wood mosaic is very similar to tile-work. Safavid dynasty is when this art reached the climax.
And other visual arts…